Q. Do wild birds infected with West Nile virus die or become
ill ???
A. This has not been previously reported in nature, but
occurred in the New York area epidemic, where there was a
large die-off of American crows. 18 native bird species have
demonstrated morbidity or mortality. Also, domestic geese
were reported as dying from West Nile virus infection in
Israel in late 1999. (The Answer should be: YES. "but" "large")
Q. Can West Nile virus cause illness in dogs or cats ?
A. There is a published report of West Nile virus from a dog.
There are no published reports regarding cats, but West Nile
virus was isolated from a dead cat in the New York area
epidemic. (Again the answer should be and is: "Yes. Deadly.")
Q. Can infected dogs or cats be carriers - i.e., reservoirs - for,
and transmit West Nile virus to humans ?
A. West Nile virus is transmitted by infectious mosquitoes.
Veterinarians should use infection control precautions when
caring for an animal suspected to have this or any viral infection.
Q. Where can I get more information
on mosquito-borne viral encephalitis ?
A. Visit the CDC website on Arboviral
Encephalitides.
Q. Where can I get more information
on pesticides ?
A. Visit the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) website on Pesticides and
Mosquito Control. (Onward...)


Q. What is the incubation period in humans i.e., time from
infection to onset of disease symptoms for West Nile encephalitis ?
A. Usually 5 to 15 days. (Lab results could take up to 3 weeks.)
Q. What should a person do if he/she thinks they have West Nile
encephalitis ?
A. Seek medical care as soon as possible. (That is said Outright ! )
Q. Reference was made to "West Nile-like" virus. Does this
mean the virus found in New York is not West Nile virus ?
A. Initially, the virus found in New York was identified as being
genetically related to West Nile virus. Genetic sequencing of virus
found in the New York area is now complete. The virus has been
definitively identified as West Nile virus.
Q. Who is at risk for getting West Nile encephalitis ?
A. All residents of areas where virus activity has been identified are
at risk of getting West Nile encephalitis; persons greater than 50
years of age have the highest risk of severe disease. ( Be well
advised ... Children are also at high risk levels.)

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Q. What proportion of people die when infected with West Nile ?
A. Case-fatality rates range from 3% to 15%.
Q. How does West Nile virus actually cause death ?
A. Following transmission by an infected mosquito, West Nile virus
multiplies in the person's blood system and crosses the blood-brain
barrier to reach the brain. The virus interferes with normal central
nervous system functioning and causes inflammation of brain tissue.
Q. Is the disease seasonal in its occurrence ?
A. In the Temperate Zone of the world, i.e., between latitudes 23.5
and 66.5 north and south, West Nile encephalitis cases occur
primarily in the late summer or early fall. In the southern climates
where temperatures are milder, West Nile virus can be transmitted
year round. (Notice the word "primarily", then notice "year round."
So, anything is possible. Take healthy precautions and be happy.)

Q. How do dogs or cats become
infected with West Nile virus ?
A. The same way humans become
infected, by the bite of mosquitoes.
Q. Are duck and other wild game
hunters at risk for WNV infection ?
A. We do not know the extent to which
West Nile virus may be present in wild
game.
Q. What should wild game hunters do
to protect against West Nile infection ?
A. A hunter should follow the usual
precautions when handling wild animals.
If you anticipate being exposed to
mosquitoes, apply insect repellents to
clothing and skin, according to label
instructions to prevent mosquito bites.
Wear gloves when handling and cleaning
animals to prevent blood exposure to
bare hands. Cook meat thoroughly.
(I Love This One. "Cook Meat
Thoroughly."
Do Not Let It Go.
Think about what they said.
Think About The Implications.)
Q. Were the horse deaths reported on
Long Island, NY due to West Nile virus ?
A. West Nile virus has been identified
in the tissue and specific West Nile
antibody has been observed in others.
Investigations by the USDA and CDC
indicate that West Nile was responsible
for horse deaths.
The Mosquito War

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Awareness and Prevention
- The Mosquito Bites -
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